2Hol fordulhatnak veszélyek az élelmiszerellátásban? Ipari kibocsátásHulladéklerakóJármű-kibocsátásMezőgazdaságigyakorlathaszonállatoknövényektengeri élőlényekFeldolgozásételkészítéstárolásCrops and animals may be exposed to toxic substances due to envionmental contamination of water, air and soil. In addition, agrochemicals, such as pesticides, are widely used in most countries. Food can also be contaminated during processing, handling, storage, and preparation. Long-term, low-level exposure to some chemical contaminants is associated with serious disease, including neurological damage, birth defects and cancer. Although rare, acute exposures to chemicals through food have resulted in large-scale outbreaks, in some cases with irreversible health damage and enormous economic costs. Regular, accurate information on food contamination is essential to reduce its occurrence and protect public health.kiskereskedelemelosztás
3Mikrobiális ökológia A mikrobák mindenütt előfordulnak: levegőben vízbenélelmiszerekbentalajbanemberben(pl. béltraktus, orr, bőr)felületekenMicrobes are everywhere. Their rapid division allows them to multiply to large numbers, and sometimes produce toxins. Their small size and mass allows them to be transported easily.Certain organisms may be associated with niches where the environment favours their multiplication. For example, organisms able to withstand high temperatures are found in hot springs, a habitat where most microorganisms could not establish themselves. Some may also grow at low temperatures.Some are particularly ‘agile’. Gut organisms are found predominantly in the gut and are spread through the faeces. They can survive, and even multiply, outside the gut.
4A Salmonella (nem typhi) kör Szennyvíz, iszapvágóhídHordozó vadállatélelmiszerháziállatOne problem is that many of the organisms that interest us are not restricted to a single habitat. Here we can see that this causes a cycle of contamination, survival, multiplication and spread in the environment.This diagram shows Salmonella but it could also represent many other organisms.Although the organism may not be restricted in its ability to grow, there are some places where it is particularly likely to be found. We refer to these as reservoirs. The guts of humans and animals are common reservoirs.However, any warm place with sufficient nutrients and water can become a reservoir.emberÁllattal való behozatalházi kedvencÁllateledelImportált állati / növényi fehérjepl. húsliszt csontlisztmoslékImport élelmiszer
5A Campylobacter átvitele Some organisms such as Campylobacter may survive, but do not grow easily outside their niche. Thus, the number of potential reservoirs is restricted. This has implications for intervention measures.Campylobacter requires special conditions: a low oxygen level, a temperature >30°C and some special nutrients. It is probably a natural resident of the gut of birds. Poultry is a major reservoir for pathogenic campylobacters.Although it normally does not grow in the environment or in foods, it can survive and seems to have a low infectious dose. We shall see later that this may contribute to the increasing incidence of infection with this organism.
6Nincs steril nyersanyag HúsBaromfiHal, kagylóGabonafélék, hüvelyesekTejTojásZöldségek, gyümölcsök, diófélékFűszerekOlajok, zsiradékokVízMany raw materials, each with an associated normal flora, are used as foods or for making foods. Pathogens may enter the food, either due to the way they are produced or by being transferred from the animal of origin. In certain cases, pathogens may almost be considered part of the normal flora, e.g. Campylobacter in chickens.
7A nyersanyagok jelentősége Hús és húskészítményekBaromfi és baromfikészítményekHal, kagylóTejTojás, tojással készült élelmiszerekZöldségek, gyümölcsök, diófélékFűszerekOlajok, zsiradékokVízSome raw materials on this list are more important than others in relation to food safety. Products of animal origin are particularly likely to carry foodborne pathogens.Cereals and spices can have pathogens associated with them. Some have been directly implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks: for instance, rice (Bacillus cereus), pepper, and paprika (Salmonella).Oils and fats have an impeccable safety record as far as biological contamination is concerned.
8A hús és húskészítményekben előforduló legjelentősebb veszélyek SalmonellaStaphylococcus aureusYersinia enterocoliticaClostridium perfringensClostridium botulinumpatogén Escherichia coliListeria monocytogenesparazitákPathogenic microorganisms are often associated with meat and meat products.This is because the gut is the major reservoir for many pathogens. Husbandry and rearing practices contribute to contamination; for example, in industrialized countries, the use of animal feeds made from rendered animal by-products such as bone meal and fish meal. The use of vegetable-based feeds made from soy and other oilseed press-cakes has also contributed to the problem.
9A hús szennyeződési lánca keresztszennyeződéskeresztszennyeződésFertőzött szeletkeresztszennyeződéskeresztszennyeződésvágóhídhentesHere we can see how meat is contaminated. Cross-contamination between animals in the farm is due to husbandry practices.However, at slaughter, gut contents can contaminate the surfaces in the abattoir and be spread by utensils, causing cross-contamination between carcasses. Further cross-contamination can occur at the butcher’s shop.Nowadays, in most developed countries, slaughterhouse hygiene and practices are carefully controlled. Diseased carcasses are usually spotted and discarded at examination. Even so, some contamination will always occur from the removal of the hide and the gastrointestinal tract.- beteg vagy szennyezett (fertőzött)+keresztszennyeződésVér és szövetnedv csepegés
10Tej Mycobacterium Brucella Salmonella L. monocytogenes E. coli S. aureusBacillusClostridiumCampylobacterMilk is susceptible to contamination, due to the proximity of the udder to the ground and to the back end of the cow. Many pathogens have been associated with milk and milk products. Some of these are pathogenic for cattle as well as humans, such as Brucella and Mycobacterium; others are microorganisms found naturally living in the soil or in the animal host without causing disease.
11Baromfi és baromfikészítmények SalmonellaCampylobacterC. perfringensS. aureusY. enterocoliticaL. monocytogenesIntensive poultry rearing and processing practices have led to reduced prices and increased consumption. At the same time, the risk of contamination of poultry with pathogens has increased.Many pathogens are associated with poultry. Some, such as Campylobacter, may be natural gut inhabitants. Others, such as Salmonella, may be picked up from the environment or from contaminated feed.
12Tojás és tojással készült élelmiszerek Salmonella !By far, the most important pathogenic organism associated with eggs is Salmonella. Salmonella can contaminate eggs by penetrating the egg shell, especially if it is cracked, and through cross-contamination during preparation of dishes containing eggs. In addition, Salmonella serotype enteritidis (and occasionally other serotypes) can infect the ovaries of hens and contaminate the interior of the egg before the shell is formed. Once inside the egg, Salmonella can grow quickly if the egg is not refrigerated.
13Hal és kagyló Baktériumok Paraziták Vírusok Clostridium botulinum E Vibrio parahaemolyticusVibrio vulnificusVibrio choleraeListeria monocytogenesParazitákVírusokHepatitis ANorwalk vírusFish and shellfish also have associated hazards. One of the world’s largest foodborne disease outbreaks occurred in Shanghai, China in 1989, where some 300,000 cases of hepatitis A caused by the consumption of contaminated clams were reported.Raw shellfish and raw fish marinated in lime juice (ceviche) have recently been associated with cholera in Latin America. C. botulinum type E is found in the gut of fish and is also common in some marine sediments. It has caused problems in Middle-Eastern dishes prepared by fermentation of uneviscerated fish, and in dry smoked fish in Egypt. V. parahaemolyticus comes from the sea, but the reasons for its association with shellfish are unclear.
14Zöldségek, gyümölcsök, diófélék BaktériumokSalmonellaShigellaVibrio choleraeListeria monocytogenesEnterotoxikus E. coliClostridium botulinumHepatitis A és egyéb enterális vírusokParazitákPenészekPathogens may be associated with raw vegetable materials. All these, except moulds, reach these products through cross-contamination from contaminated water (e.g. waste water, surface water, household water), animal manure or human beings.Fruits and nuts are a source of foreign bodies (shells, pips, etc.)
15Fűszerek C. perfringens B. cereus Salmonella Penészek Spices are associated with microbial hazards for the same reason as cereals or vegetables. They can become heavily contaminated with Salmonella if they are extensively handled or dried in unprotected areas.
16Gabonafélék Penészek Salmonella B. cereus B. cereus is found in soils and dust and thus commonly occurs in grains.Handling of grains in bulk attracts animals and birds. Their faeces may contaminate grains with enteric pathogens.Cereals are naturally associated with moulds and thus there is a potential for mycotoxin production. Another risk associated with cereals is the mixing of toxic weeds with wheat.
17Olajok, zsírok Toxikus szennyezőanyagok Kémiai szennyezőanyagok Oils and fats do not have any microbial risks associated with them if prepared properly.However, these are really processed foods since few oils are consumed in an unrefined state.A number of chemical hazards have been reported.
18Az élelmiszer-eredetű patogének ökológiája ÖsszefoglalásNéhány állati „eredetű”SalmonellaCampylobacterE. coliNövényekhez, olajokhoz kapcsolódóPenészekB. cereusC. botulinumTengeri „eredetű”V. parahaemolyticusC. botulinum EV. choleraeEmber a közvetítőjeVírusokS. typhiS. aureusShigellaWe can see that although some foodborne pathogens come from plants and soil, animals are the main source. In the case of developing countries, waste water / irrigation water plays an important role.
19Mycotoxinok Kemikália Forrás Élelmiszer Aflatoxin Trichothecén Ochratoxin AErgot alkaloidaFumonisinPatulinZearalenonAspergillus flavus ésA. parasiticuselsősorban FusariumPenicillium verrucosumA. ochraceusClaviceps purpureaFusarium moniliformeP. expansumFusarium spp.magok, diófélék, tejgabonák, egyéb élelmiszerbúza, árpa, kukoricarozs, árpa, búzakukoricaalma, körtegabonafélék, olaj, keményítőMycotoxins are poisonous substances produced by fungi, and have caused outbreaks of mycotoxicosis in humans and in livestock. Many outbreaks have been linked to eating mouldy food and feed because of food shortages or because of ignorance of the possible consequences. Such practices continue in many parts of the world.Mycotoxins have also been implicated in many chronic diseases, including cancer. Public health officials are beginning to recognize the impact of these toxins on human and animal health. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) has estimated that 25% of the world's food crops are contaminated by mycotoxins. In Asia and Africa, a study estimated that 10 to 50% of crops are contaminated. In a Japanese study of Fusarium toxins in corn from widely separated countries, only a few samples were free from contamination.
20A növényi élelmiszerekben lévő természetes toxikus anyagok Kemikália ÉlelmiszerOxalátok rebarbara, tea, kakaó, spenót,Glycoalkaloidák zöld burgonyaCyanoglycosid-ok lima bab, maniókaPhytohaemagglutinin vörös vesebab és egyéb babfélékKülönböző karcinogének fűszerek és gyógynövényekMany plants contain components which may be toxic to humans and animals. Some, such as cassava and red kidney beans, must be properly processed before they are safe for consumption. Others, including many common spices, contain naturally occurring known or suspected carcinogens, such as alkyl isothiocyanate (garlic), capsaicin (hot chilli peppers) and apiol (parsley, celery, parsnips). Consumption of insufficiently processed cycad flour has been associated with a delayed neurotoxic syndrome in Guam, Japan and Papua New Guinea.
22ÖsszefoglalásNyersanyagok -- alapanyagok, csomagolószerek, víz – veszélyforrások lehetnekA HACCP rendszer az alapja a nyersanyagokban előforduló lehetséges veszélyek feltárásánakAz ismeretek felhasználása segítséget nyújt a potenciális veszélyek azonosításához és a szükséges intézkedések meghozatalához