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A tárgyszerű épülettől az urbanizált tájig Új témák, kutatások, intézmények, publikációk.

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Az előadások a következő témára: "A tárgyszerű épülettől az urbanizált tájig Új témák, kutatások, intézmények, publikációk."— Előadás másolata:

1 A tárgyszerű épülettől az urbanizált tájig Új témák, kutatások, intézmények, publikációk

2 Új témák, kapcsolódások A modern és a modern után: strukturalizmus, rendszer, megastruktúrák, L épték váltás, sűrűség, kiterjedés Urbanizmus és építészet – táj. A város mint táj, az urbanizált táj Diszciplinák átrendeződése: landscape urbanism, landform buildings, cultural geography (topography), Hibrid formációk

3 Metapolis Dictionary „Towards a New Architecture”, 2003 Új építészet látszik kibontakozni a horizonton. A hagyományos ikonográfián avagy a tárgy megrögzítésén túllépve az építészet összekapcsolódik a változásokkal: az események és a folyamatok időbeli és fejlődésbeli dimenzióival. MG, 34: „there seems to be a new architecture emerging on the horizon; beyond conventional iconography or the fixing of the object, it is an architecture positively bound to change: with events and the temporal and evolutionary dimension of processes. An architecture aware of the future importance of interchange and information. To provide expression, joy and freshness for a new emergent ordinariness, and, consequently, dignity and stimulus for life.

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5 Környezet A gépi paradigma a mesterséges és a természetes szembeállításán vagy legalábbis elkülönítésén alapult. A természet és a táj átértékelődése az urbanizáció előrehaladása, a kompakt városok szétterülése, a beavatkozások mélységének és eszközeinek megváltozásával. Reflexív modernitás

6 Természet, táj Az eltűnő és a mindenható természet Evolúció, evolucionizmus Kölcsönhatások, mozgás, alakulás Beavatkozás, eljárás, módszer Modellezés, szimuláció,

7 Kenneth Frampton Globalizáció, az egységes áttekintés lehetetlensége (?) Topográfia, morfológia, fenntarthatóság, anyagszerűség „A terület módosítása mint egy új kulturális diszciplina kialakítása, nem csak a hagyományos módon felfogott tájművészetre támaszkodhat, hanem azokra az épített alkotásokra is, amelyek táj módjára vannak megformálva vagy tárgyként olyan szerves összefüggést képeznek a helyszínnel, hogy nem választhatók el a környező topográfiától. Épp a tájfogalom hatókörének az az újragondolása az, amely napjainkban elősegíti a tájépítő urbanizmus aldiszciplinájának a kialakulását. Ezt az új területet a beavatkozás olyan új módjaként gondolják el, amelynek stratégiai célja teljességgel különbözik az átfo várostervezés mára nagymértékben diszkreditálódott gyakorlatától.”

8 Un-volumetric architecture

9 Landscape Urbanism Urbanised Landscape Urban ecology Ecological Urbanism

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11 Az utóbbi években egy fontos váltás tanúi vagyunk: minden, akár természeti, akár mesterséges helyszínt egyre inkább tájként fogunk fel, nem pusztán építészeti tárgyak többé-kevésbé plasztikus, semleges háttereként. E nézőpontváltás révén a táj lehetséges átalakítások alanyává válik, immár nem mozdulatlan, hanem tervezhető és mesterséges entitást jelent. A táj a figyelem előterébe, az építészek érdeklődésének fókuszába került.

12 Egy diszciplina intézményesülésének története The first event was the Landscape Urbanism conference sponsored by the Graham Foundation in Chicago in April Speakers included Charles Waldheim, Mohsen Mostafavi, James Corner of James Corner/Field Operations, Alex Wall, and Adriaan Geuze of the firm West 8, among others.Mohsen MostafaviJames CornerWest 8 The formative period of Landscape Urbanism can be traced back to University of Pennsylvania in the late 1980s, at a time when James Corner, Mohsen Mostafavi, and others were exploring the artificial boundaries of Landscape Architecture, Urban Design and Architecture, searching for better ways to deal with complex urban projects.University of Pennsylvania After the Chicago conference, European design schools and North American design institutions formed academic programs and began to formalize a field of Landscape Urbanism studies, including Oslo School of Architecture, Catholic University in Leuven, Belgium, the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Toronto, Harvard Graduate School of Design, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.University of Illinois University of TorontoHarvard Graduate School of DesignMassachusetts Institute of Technology In 2000 the London's Architectural Association developed its own Landscape Urbanism program under the direction of Ciro Najle and chairman at the time Mohsen Mostafavi. This was marked by the 2003 publication of the book "Landscape Urbanism: A Manual for the Machinic Landscape" a year before chairman Mostafavi left the AA.Architectural Association

13 The main qualities of Landscape Urbanism (James Corner) Process in time: urbanization is a dynamic process characterized more by terms like fluidity, spontaneous feedback, and non-linearity, than stability, predictability, or rationality. Ecology and systems theory are concepts inherent to the city. Apart from a unique set of lingo, this idea of 'process in time' affirms to idea of phased construction projects.It is hardly an innovative concept as architectural, landscape or urbanist projects often use multiple phases of construction. fluidityfeedbacknon-linearityEcologysystems theory Surface, not form: horizontality and decentralization in places like Los Angeles, Atlanta, Houston, San Jose, and the suburban and exurban fringes of most American cites is the supermajority of the American urban condition. As many theories of urbanism attempt to ignore this fact or retrofit it to new urbanism, Landscape Urbanism attempts to understand it and find solutions for it. Landscape Urbanism uses 'territories' and 'potential' as well as 'program' to define strategies; it finds thinking in terms of adaptable 'systems' instead of rigid 'structures' as a better way to organize physical improvements. This lingo affirms nothing more than the death of the defined space of the city. Landscape Urbanism therefore affirms low densities and uburbanisation in American planning. These concepts systematically ignore landscape urbanism outside of America, where cities are still developing within the limits of city as defined by urban planners.Los AngelesAtlanta HoustonSan Josesuburbannew urbanism Form: This concept negates the idea of 'plan' in preference of flexibility, or the organic nature of city development. The idea is the effect of the theories of Colin Rowe and Aldo Rossi affirming that different portions of cities should develop relative to their own set of criteria.

14 Infrastructure

15 Kutatás: intézmények, szervezet, témák Svájc, ETH, Zürich, Basel NSL - Network City and Landscape Through research and teaching, Network City and Landscape (NSL) aims to lay the foundations for a design of our environment that meets human needs, is sustainable, and has high aesthetic and cultural qualities, while finding a means to make this design available to the public.

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17 On the one hand, this involves the objective collection of data relating to the environment, connecting them and translating them into strategies for action, and on the other, the subjective application of these strategies with respect to cultural and aesthetic qualities in a clearly defined physical form.

18 In order to provide a comprehensive survey of aspects of urban and landscape design, Network City and Landscape includes architecture, engineering and the social sciences. It is subdivided into five institutes, each of which belongs to the departments of either architecture or civil, environmental and geomatics engineering

19 Am NSL beteiligte Institute Departement Architektur (D-ARCH) Institut für Städtebau (ISB) Prof. Dr. Marc Angélil / Professur für Architektur und Entwurf Professur für Architektur und Entwurf Prof. Alfredo Brillembourg / Professur für Architektur und Städtebau Professur für Architektur und Städtebau Prof. Kees Christiaanse / Professur für Architektur und Städtebau Professur für Architektur und Städtebau Prof. Hubert Klumpner / Professur für Architektur und Städtebau Professur für Architektur und Städtebau Prof. Dr. Ing. Vittorio Magnago Lampugnani / Professur für Geschichte des Städtebaus Professur für Geschichte des Städtebaus Prof. Dr. Christian Schmid / Dozentur SoziologieDozentur Soziologie ETH Studio Basel / Institut Stadt der Gegenwart Prof. Roger Diener Prof. Jacques Herzog Prof. Marcel Meili Prof. Pierre de Meuron Prof. Dr. Christian Schmid Institut für Landschaftsarchitektur (ILA) Prof. Christophe Girot Prof. Günther Vogt Departement Bau, Umwelt und Geomatik (D-BAUG)

20 NSL projektek Professzorok egyéni projektjei

21 Future Cities Laboratory This century will, for the first time, see over half the world’s population living in cities. Making these urban structures environmentally and economically sustainable and liveable is one of today’s great challenges. This is why ETH Zurich will start with the “Future Cities Laboratory” programme in Zurich and Singapore. The Future Cities Laboratory in Singapore is not the only commitment by ETH Zurich to promote sustainable urban development worldwide. ETH Zurich helped to found an Institute for Urban Development at the University in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. The research at the FCL focuses on three scales: sustainable building technologies, the city as an urban system, and the relationship between urban and rural environments. The architects, planners and scientists see and design the city as a dynamic system in which people interact and in which resources such as energy, water, space, capital, materials or information are constantly in flux. There is also a plan for collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which is to move with ETH Zurich in 2011 into the CREATE Campus being constructed for the purpose.

22 Future of Urbanised Landscapes From 2004 to 2006, the Network City and Landscape (NSL) took on the interdisciplinary research project: The Future of Urbanised Landscapes; which investigated the characteristics, forms, functions and development of urban landscapes in five specialised areas. Urbanised landscapes are shaped by the economic activities of people and structurally urbanised landscape sectors. The goal was to formulate methods and instruments as well as a concept for the planning, design and presentation of these kinds of spaces. The main area under consideration was the Glattal, located in the northern part of the city of Zurich. This suburban space between the Zurich Airport and the Greifensee has developed very dynamically in recent years. Considering the advancing levels of change and density, the importance of urbanised landscapes must be recognised and their importance for the quality of life of the residents must be acknowledged.

23 Marc Angelil Kees Christiaanse Prof. Alfredo Brillembourg + Prof. Hubert Klumpner Prof. Alfredo Brillembourg + Prof. Hubert Klumpner

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25 A research on Urban Transformation After the four-year study “Switzerland – An Urban Portrait” that investigated the urban condition of Switzerland as a thoroughly urbanized country, ETH Studio Basel started a research program on processes of transformation in the urban domain on an international scale, focusing on the urbanization process on the seven Canary Islands, in the development of the tri-national region of MetroBasel, and in cities such as Belgrade, Havana, Nairobi, Casablanca, or Hong Kong.

26 Energy-Water-Food-Land-Waste ETH Studio Basel has started a new urban and territorial research project looking at the metabolism of cities. Energy-Water-Food-Land- Waste represent some of the material flows into and out of our urban space. More than just the “infrastructure” of a city, the flow of matter has always had fundamental impact on the shape and the operation of our urban territories, linking topics such as trade and cultural exchange, with resources and sustainability, as well as with the relationship between the urban and the rural.

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28 Princeton School of Architecture vrc/recordings/ (CAUI):

29 Princeton has established a research center to collect the interdisciplinary urban research that is currently dispersed across the campus. The goal of the Center for Architecture, Urbanism, and Infrastructure is to offer a focused platform for sharing and expanding this collective research.

30 Urban ring, urban development, urban legend, ex- urban…are these urban phenomena still visible as we begin the twenty-first century? Today’s world is omniurban: urban rings absorb urban centers; ex-urbanism overlaps with the inner city; urban legends are built on suburban banalities. At the beginning of the twentieth century, approximately 10% of the world’s population lived in cities; today, more than 75% of the world’s citizens live in urbanized areas. Urbanization is not only a global phenomenon of physical and cultural restructuring—it has itself become a spatial effect of the distributed networks of communication, resources, finance and migration that characterize contemporary life. The city today is everywhere and nowhere

31 The Center for Architecture, Urbanism and Infrastructure supports two academic programs in Princeton’s School of Architecture, reflecting a more than 15-year commitment to issues facing contemporary cities. The China Studio, for master’s in architecture students, and the undergraduate Program in Urban Studies offer a means to study and explore cities and urbanism with a comparative, international perspective.work/research Obsolescence, History, and the Present Crisis

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34 Theories of Landscape as Urbanism, Landscape as Infrastructure: Paradigms, Practices, Prospects (DES ) Foregrounding the nascent reciprocity between ecology, economy and energy, …opens a horizon on pressing issues facing cities today to recast the infrastructural and geopolitical role of landscape as operating system for future urbanism. Drawing from an array of contemporary projects and historic public works, the course concludes with student-led presentations of mapping projects that focus on transboundary watershed regions throughout the world; regions where, according to the United Nations, more than 60% of the world population will be living by the year Foreshadowing the preeminence of ecology in cities and infrastructures, the motive of the course is to construct a clear, multivalent discourse on the field of landscape as it becomes the locus of intellectual, ecological and economic change of significance, globally.

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