In memoriam prof. JÓZSEF ZIMÁNYI Who is the main responsible for it that we can be here
From Gabor.Facsko@cnrs-orleans.frGabor.Facsko@cnrs-orleans.fr Wed Mar 18 15:39:59 2009 Date: Wed, 18 Mar 2009 12:02:00 +0100 Cc: RMKI-s kollegak Subject: Re: [Rmkiusers] RMKI logo (fwd) Tisztelt ex-Kollegak! Imhol egy masik jo pelda: szerepel rajta az intezet nevenek roviditese, tovabba egy jellemzo kep is a hatterben. (A bal oldali mezo a logo, azt hasznaljuk posztereken.) Esetleg el kellene gondolkodni az RMKI profiljan es egy esetleges nevcseren is. Ki foglalkozik meg reszecske es magfizikaval? Paran biztosan, de en ugy latom, hogy a fuzios plazamafizika, a szilardtestfizika, az altalanos relativitaselmelet, az urfizikia es a biofizika a legintenzivebben kutatott teruletek az intezeten belul. Udvozlettel (es a kivulallo nyugalmaval): Facsko Gabor -- Dr. Gabor FACSKO, PhD email@example.com CAA Research Associate http://lpce.cnrs-orleans.fr/~gfacsko/http://lpce.cnrs-orleans.fr/~gfacsko/ VOX POPULI
Korfa/Tudományos fokozat RMKI Részecskefizikai Főosztály Létszám: 18 (kutató:15/mérnök:3) Teljes fogl.:15; rész fogl.(nyugdíjas): 3 LÁTHATATLAN LÉGIÓ:Tartósan távol: 4 RMKI: MFFO, ELMÉLET ELTE, ATOMKI, Debreceni Egyetem….
Szerény óhaj: Akik nem azért lettek kutatók, hogy nem álmodoztak volna a Nobel-díjról, legjobban teszik, ha elhagyják az ülés- termet, mivel számukra a továbbiak úgy sem lehetnek meggyőzőek.
Motivations for CERN membership in 1991 and NOW(?) Scientific Political Economical Cultural Education Technology What is the correct order???? There is no unique answer. Mixed arguments.
ALICE a TeV-ek országában ALICE a TEVÉK országában
Belépés a Csodák Palotájába ALICE in WONDERLAND Sezám tárulj!!
Kérdés: Tevék országában vagyunk-e? Tudományos sivatag Financiális sivatag Társadalmi közöny, érdektelenség sivataga
The highway across the desert Today’s Limit … GUTs Planck length : Super partners
A VÁKUUM ANYAGA A természetes rádióaktivitás felfedezése óta nem fedeztünk fel semmiféle új anyagfajtát - sugárzás: He atommag kvarkokból - sugárzás:Elektron nyaláb - sugárzás:Foton nyaláb HIGGS-BOZON tölti ki az egész teret
Az Univerzum leghidegebb es legmelegebb pontja Világűr 2.73 K LHC 1.9 K 27km*.5m 2 =15 ezer m 3 DIPOLMAGNES 1250 db 200*3100= 620,000 TeV 1 200 TeV / 7*7 * 7/3100= 0,3 fm 3 r = 7 fm d = r/3100 4 Peta eV/ fm 3
PREHISTORY Starting points in the 50’s: a) Hungarian “MANHATTAN-Project” KFKI (1950) and ATOMKI (1954) b) Experimental Cosmic Ray Physics Research reactor, MeV accelerators, nuclear electronics and detectors Beginning of HEP in the 60’s: JINR-Dubna membership: HU was providing personel and instrumentation Most active period 1969-1973 Serpuhov 70 GeV accelerator Hungarian colony in Dubna includes more than 50 scientists and engineers First contacts to CERN a) CERN-Dubna agreement (1964) Some people of Dubna staff can visit CERN b) HAS-CERN : “scientific visitor” agreement (1970) 1-2 year fellowship for theorists and experimentalists alternatively
LEP-L3 the first Hungarian CERN experiment By special grant of HAS a Hungarian team as official BUDAPEST group from the beginning became the member of the L3 experiment The grant was just enough to cover the obligatory yearly “running cost”, but no resource for construction. Minor hardware contribution was achieved to the SMD Si-detector monitor system. Main contribution: core-software development, data processing, physical analysis In 1995 the group was reorganized to concentrate for gamma-gamma analysis. Due to the complexity of the analysis software, effective work was only possible during the short 1-2 months visiting periods of the Hungarian team members to CERN. The home computer base was under-developped to install the necessary program packages. In 1999 the ATOMKI-Debrecen University team also became an official member.
What did we learned from L3? By the contemporary Hungarian standards the team got relatively large financial support, but the real sum turned out to be marginal compared to western levels of funding. Most of the team members had no real direct affiliation to any subdetector, they were drifting around according to occasional short-term grants. E.g. the key person of the gamma-gamma project left for OPAL continuing his successful carrier there. Thus we reached only 1 complete PhD and 2 “half” ones. Trivial conclusion: We missed the critical mass BUT! There is no universal way to the success. Let us try some variants!!!
Three CASE STORIES for CRITICAL MASS experiments
VISIBILITY in a BIG EXPERIMENT (CMS) Small country vs Big-science Early start: founding father already in RD5. Large contribution to smaller sub-detector Very Forward Calorimetry Challenge: same number of particle as in barrel, prompt signal, rad.hard Parallele-Plate-Chamber vs Quartz-fibre calorimetry Partners: USA, Russia,Turkey Prototyping 2 times 15 kCHF Production: fibre stuffing MULTI-GROUP approach: second hardware group for Muon Alignement Physics subgroups: see F. Sikler and D Horvath talks
TECHNOLOGY for a BIG EXPERIMENT (ALICE) High-speed data transfer (RD3) project + a talented engineer: S-LINK DDL-project for ALICE Concept, protocol, design, prototype G. Rubin’s team Production in Hungary Tecnhology transfer: FPGA design technology, rad.hard electronics Spin-off company supported by Hungarian R&D funds Physics see in Levai’s talk
References High-speed optical links produced in Hungary work at data acquisition systems at: CERN ● INFN (Roma ● Torino ● Bologna ● Napoli ● Pisa) IPN (Orsay, Nantes) ● CEA (Paris) ● NIKHEF (Amsterdam) Max-Planck Institute (München) ● KFKI-RMKI (Budapest) Stockholm University ● IFAE (Univ. of Barcelona) ● Univ. of Valencia Univ. of Lausanne ● TU München ● Bärgische Univ. Wuppertal Johannes Gutenberg Universität ● Mancester University Univ. of Chicago ● Indiana University ● Caltech (Los Angeles) ● Argonne Nat. Lab. (Chicago) ● Los Alamos Nat. Lab. Fermilab (Batavia) ● Brookhaven Nat. Lab. (New Yersey) IRAM (an observatory in the Pirennes) a space telescope in Hawaii ● etc.
Critical mass in a “small” experiment (NA49) 3 components of an explosive mixture: -- Experienced hardware team from nuclear physics environment -- Continuous influx of talented students -- Committed theory support group Actions: -- GRID-TOF stand-alone Hungarian subdetector Original design, production, installation, on-line DAQ, off-line software,analysis -- Specific RESEARCH AIMS: concentrate on pp/pA physics Motto: AA can be understood only relative to simpler systems -- In house EDUCATION CENTRE (thanks to H.G.Fischer) Every year 2 new students with a new hardware piece is added: centrality detector, (new/old) n-detector, veto-chambers, GAP TPC, np-trigger, Leadglass.. Highlights: see next slides Reasonable HOME FUNDING in average 30 kCHF/year
The CRITICAL POINT’s puzzle is well characterized by the letter of leading theorists to the SPSLC Committee which was the highest scientific decision body of CERN at that time:
Water analogy for QGP phase transition Zoltán FODOR(ELTE)
9 Strong interactions and the interface of particle and nuclear physics A variety of important research lines are at the interface between particle and nuclear physics requiring dedicated experiments; Council will seek to work with NuPECC in areas of mutual interest, and maintain the capability to perform fixed target experiments at CERN. QCD plays a multiple role in particle physics. On one side QCD is one of the cornerstones of the SM, and in spite of its phenomenological successes more work is necessary to fully establish its quantitative predictions in the long-distance and strongly interacting regimes. On the other side, QCD is a crucial tool for the measurement of the electroweak parameters of the SM (e.g. the quark masses and mixings) as well as to search for BSM phenomena, both at low energies (e.g. in the decays of K or B mesons) and at high energies, where the production of new heavy particles may be hidden by large QCD backgrounds, and often manifests itself in the form of multijet signatures. Finally, QCD leads to new states of matter, when temperature and densities exceed the values beyond which quarks and gluons are confined inside hadrons. Progress in the field of strong interactions, guaranteed by a diversified programme of national or regional facilities operating at different energies and with different beams, plays an important role in the future of particle physics. In parallel, a fixed-target programme, to specifically address the problem of identifying a QCD critical point by improving and diversifying the available data, could be important. The ability to carry out fixed-target experiments at CERN with heavy ions beams should be preserved. STRATEGY DOCUMENT 14 July 2006, Lisbon
LHC ALICEALICE - A Large Ion Collider Experiment ATLAS CMSCMS - The Compact Muon Solenoid LHCBLHCb LHCFLHCf-measurement of forward neutral particle production for cosmic ray research TOTEMTotal Cross Section, Elastic Scattering and Diffraction Dissociation at the LHC SPS CNGS1(OPERA) An Appearance Experiment to Search for nu_mu --> nu_tau Oscillations in the CNGS Beam CNGS2(ICARUS) A search programme of explicit v-oscillations with the icarus detector... NA58(COMPASS) COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy NA61 (SHINE) Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS NA62Proposal to Measure the Rare Decay K+ -> pi+ nu nu at the Cern SPS NA63Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields SPOKESPERSON:Marek GAZDZICKI SPOKESPERSON:Gyoergy VESZTERGOMBI GLIMOS:Zoltan FODOR (RUN coordinator) Beam: Approved: 21-FEB-07 Status:Data Taking GREY BOOK NA61 Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS HIGH ENERGY EXPERIMENTS AT CERN
From this table one should notice the fact that in the huge CERN Laboratory exists only 12 officially acknowledged high energy physics experiments. There is 6 planned experiments at LHC: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEM and an other 6 registered experiments at SPS: CNGS1(OPERA), CNGS2(ICARUS), NA58(COMPASS), NA61(SHINE), NA62, NA63. Hungary has relative large groups in CMS and ALICE, but they represent only a small minority amongst the few thousand participants. In the small SHINE/NA61 experiment already 10 people represent a strong contingent, but our role even more significantbecause this is the only experiment in CERN where Hungarians are occupying leading positions: G Vesztergombi together with M. Gazdzidki are the spokespersons, responsible separately for the proton- and heavy ion physics, respectively. Beyond these administrative posts it is more important that the position of RUN coordination is also in Hungarian hand. Z. Fodor (RMKI) is the Technical Coordinator, who is the commander of the real experimental work on the floor, knowing all the technical and scientific details.
Detector development – engineering The NA49 data acquisition rate was limited to 4 - 5 Hz with a duty factor of 25% (effective rate around 1 Hz) and that seriously limited the statistics that could be collected for all measurements, including the high pT measurements. With this upgrade we can achieve a readout rate in excess of 40 Hz. An additional factor of 2 will be gained by reducing the sampling frequency of drift electrons. An overall readout rate exceeding 80 Hz will be thus achieved. With the typical 25% duty factor of the SPS that will result in an effective rate in excess of 20 Hz. A total of 240 MB and 8 CD were produced. In ALICE detector one finds similar TPC as in SHINE, which has about only 3 times more (500,000) pads, but using 500 DDL channels and 200 CPU units to collect the data. In case of the SHINE detector, however, one uses about 60 times smaller number (8) of DDL channels and 200 times less number of CPUs, i.e. the new SHINE-DAQ system capable to handle similar order of magnitude data volume by a SINGLE COMPUTER!!! PCI-bus in „1” PC