2 In memoriamprof. JÓZSEF ZIMÁNYIWho is the main responsible for it that we can be here
3 VOX POPULI Ki foglalkozik meg reszecske es magfizikaval? FromWed Mar 18 15:39:Date: Wed, 18 Mar :02:Cc: RMKI-s kollegakSubject: Re: [Rmkiusers] RMKI logo (fwd)Tisztelt ex-Kollegak! Imhol egy masik jo pelda: szerepel rajta az intezet nevenekroviditese, tovabba egy jellemzo kep is a hatterben. (A bal oldali mezo a logo, azthasznaljuk posztereken.) Esetleg el kellene gondolkodni az RMKI profiljan es egy esetleges nevcseren is.Ki foglalkozik meg reszecske es magfizikaval?Paran biztosan, de en ugy latom, hogy a fuzios plazamafizika, a szilardtestfizika, az altalanos relativitaselmelet, az urfizikia es a biofizika a legintenzivebben kutatott teruletek az intezeten belul.Udvozlettel (es a kivulallo nyugalmaval):Facsko Gabor -- Dr. Gabor FACSKO, PhDCAA Research AssociateVOX POPULI
4 RMKI Részecskefizikai Főosztály Létszám: 18 (kutató:15/mérnök:3)Teljes fogl.:15; rész fogl.(nyugdíjas): 3Korfa/Tudományos fokozatLÁTHATATLAN LÉGIÓ:Tartósan távol: 4RMKI: MFFO, ELMÉLETELTE, ATOMKI, Debreceni Egyetem….
5 Szerény óhaj:Akik nem azért lettek kutatók, hogynem álmodoztak volna a Nobel-díjról,legjobban teszik, ha elhagyják az ülés-termet, mivel számukra a továbbiakúgy sem lehetnek meggyőzőek.
6 Motivations for CERN membership in 1991 and NOW(?) ScientificPoliticalEconomicalCulturalEducationTechnologyWhat is the correct order????There is no unique answer. Mixed arguments.
8 ALICE a TeV-ek országában ALICE a TEVÉK országában
9 Belépés a Csodák Palotájába Sezám tárulj!!ALICE in WONDERLAND
10 PAST TRIUMPHS Kérdés: Tevék országában vagyunk-e? Tudományos sivatag Financiális sivatagTársadalmi közöny, érdektelenség sivatagaPAST TRIUMPHS
11 The highway across the desert Planck length :The highway across the desertGUTsToday’sLimit …Super partners
12 A VÁKUUM ANYAGA A természetes rádióaktivitás felfedezése óta nem fedeztünk fel semmiféle új anyagfajtáta- sugárzás:He atommag kvarkokbólb- sugárzás:Elektron nyalábg- sugárzás:Foton nyalábHIGGS-BOZON tölti ki az egész teretHa nem lenne Higgs, akkor nem lenne tömeg
13 4 Peta eV/ fm3 Az Univerzum leghidegebb es legmelegebb pontja Világűr K LHC K 27km*.5m2=15 ezer m3DIPOLMAGNES 1250 dbr = 7 fmd = r/31004 Peta eV/ fm3200*3100= 620,000 TeV200*3100= 620,000 TeV1 200 TeV / 7*7 p * 7/3100= 0,3 fm3
15 PREHISTORYStarting points in the 50’s:a) Hungarian “MANHATTAN-Project” KFKI (1950) and ATOMKI (1954)b) Experimental Cosmic Ray PhysicsResearch reactor, MeV accelerators, nuclear electronics and detectorsBeginning of HEP in the 60’s:JINR-Dubna membership: HU was providing personel and instrumentationMost active period Serpuhov 70 GeV acceleratorHungarian colony in Dubna includes more than 50 scientists and engineersFirst contacts to CERNa) CERN-Dubna agreement (1964) Some people of Dubna staff can visit CERNb) HAS-CERN : “scientific visitor” agreement (1970)1-2 year fellowship for theorists and experimentalists alternatively
16 LEP-L3 the first Hungarian CERN experiment By special grant of HAS a Hungarian team as official BUDAPEST group from thebeginning became the member of the L3 experimentThe grant was just enough to cover the obligatory yearly “running cost”,but no resource for construction. Minor hardware contribution was achievedto the SMD Si-detector monitor system.Main contribution: core-software development, data processing, physical analysisIn 1995 the group was reorganized to concentrate for gamma-gamma analysis.Due to the complexity of the analysis software, effective work was only possibleduring the short 1-2 months visiting periods of the Hungarian team members toCERN. The home computer base was under-developped to install the necessaryprogram packages.In 1999 the ATOMKI-Debrecen University team also became an official member.
17 What did we learned from L3? By the contemporary Hungarian standards the team got relativelylarge financial support, but the real sum turned out to be marginalcompared to western levels of funding.Most of the team members had no real direct affiliation to any subdetector,they were drifting around according to occasional short-term grants.E.g. the key person of the gamma-gamma project left for OPAL continuinghis successful carrier there. Thus we reached only 1 complete PhD and2 “half” ones.Trivial conclusion: We missed the critical massBUT! There is no universal way to the success. Let us try some variants!!!
18 Three CASE STORIES for CRITICAL MASS experiments
19 VISIBILITY in a BIG EXPERIMENT (CMS) Small country vs Big-scienceEarly start: founding father already in RD5.Large contribution to smaller sub-detector Very Forward CalorimetryChallenge: same number of particle as in barrel, prompt signal, rad.hardParallele-Plate-Chamber vs Quartz-fibre calorimetryPartners: USA, Russia,TurkeyPrototyping 2 times 15 kCHF Production: fibre stuffingMULTI-GROUP approach: second hardware group for Muon AlignementPhysics subgroups: see F. Sikler and D Horvath talks
27 TECHNOLOGY for a BIG EXPERIMENT (ALICE) High-speed data transfer (RD3) project + a talented engineer: S-LINKDDL-project for ALICEConcept, protocol, design, prototype G. Rubin’s teamProduction in HungaryTecnhology transfer: FPGA design technology, rad.hard electronicsSpin-off company supported by Hungarian R&D fundsPhysics see in Levai’s talk
32 ReferencesHigh-speed optical links produced in Hungary work at data acquisition systems at:CERN ● INFN (Roma ● Torino ● Bologna ● Napoli ● Pisa) IPN (Orsay, Nantes) ● CEA (Paris) ● NIKHEF (Amsterdam) Max-Planck Institute (München) ● KFKI-RMKI (Budapest) Stockholm University ● IFAE (Univ. of Barcelona) ● Univ. of Valencia Univ. of Lausanne ● TU München ● Bärgische Univ. WuppertalJohannes Gutenberg Universität ● Mancester University Univ. of Chicago ● Indiana University ● Caltech (Los Angeles) ● Argonne Nat. Lab. (Chicago) ● Los Alamos Nat. Lab. Fermilab (Batavia) ● Brookhaven Nat. Lab. (New Yersey) IRAM (an observatory in the Pirennes) a space telescope in Hawaii ● etc.
33 Critical mass in a “small” experiment (NA49) 3 components of an explosive mixture:- Experienced hardware team from nuclear physics environment- Continuous influx of talented students- Committed theory support groupActions:-- GRID-TOF stand-alone Hungarian subdetectorOriginal design, production, installation, on-line DAQ, off-line software,analysis-- Specific RESEARCH AIMS: concentrate on pp/pA physicsMotto: AA can be understood only relative to simpler systems-- In house EDUCATION CENTRE (thanks to H.G.Fischer)Every year 2 new students with a new hardware piece is added: centralitydetector, (new/old) n-detector, veto-chambers, GAP TPC, np-trigger, Leadglass..Reasonable HOME FUNDING in average 30 kCHF/yearHighlights: see next slides
44 The CRITICAL POINT’s puzzle is well characterized by the letter of leading theorists to the SPSLC Committee which was thehighest scientific decision body of CERN at that time:
45 Zoltán FODOR(ELTE)Water analogy for QGPphase transition
46 STRATEGY DOCUMENT 14 July 2006, Lisbon 9 Strong interactions and the interface of particle and nuclearphysicsA variety of important research lines are at the interface between particle and nuclearphysics requiring dedicated experiments; Council will seek to work with NuPECC inareas of mutual interest, and maintain the capability to perform fixed target experimentsat CERN.QCD plays a multiple role in particle physics. On one side QCD is one of thecornerstones of the SM, and in spite of its phenomenological successes more work isnecessary to fully establish its quantitative predictions in the long-distance and stronglyinteracting regimes. On the other side, QCD is a crucial tool for the measurement of theelectroweak parameters of the SM (e.g. the quark masses and mixings) as well as tosearch for BSM phenomena, both at low energies (e.g. in the decays of K or B mesons)and at high energies, where the production of new heavy particles may be hidden bylarge QCD backgrounds, and often manifests itself in the form of multijet signatures.Finally, QCD leads to new states of matter, when temperature and densities exceed thevalues beyond which quarks and gluons are confined inside hadrons. Progress in thefield of strong interactions, guaranteed by a diversified programme of national orregional facilities operating at different energies and with different beams, plays animportant role in the future of particle physics.In parallel, a fixed-target programme, to specifically address the problem of identifyinga QCD critical point by improving and diversifying the available data, could beimportant. The ability to carry out fixed-target experiments at CERN with heavy ionsbeams should be preserved.
47 LHC SPS HIGH ENERGY EXPERIMENTS AT CERN GREY BOOK NA61 ALICEALICE - A Large Ion Collider ExperimentATLASCMSCMS - The Compact Muon SolenoidLHCBLHCbLHCFLHCf-measurement of forward neutral particle production for cosmic ray researchTOTEMTotal Cross Section, Elastic Scattering and Diffraction Dissociation at the LHCLHCCNGS1(OPERA) An Appearance Experiment to Search for nu_mu --> nu_tau Oscillations in the CNGS BeamCNGS2(ICARUS) A search programme of explicit v-oscillations with the icarus detector...NA58(COMPASS) COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and SpectroscopyNA61(SHINE) Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPSNA62Proposal to Measure the Rare Decay K+ -> pi+ nu nu at the Cern SPSNA63Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline FieldsSPSGREY BOOKNA61Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-NucleusCollisions at the CERN SPSSPOKESPERSON:Marek GAZDZICKIGyoergy VESZTERGOMBIGLIMOS:Zoltan FODOR (RUN coordinator)Beam:Approved: 21-FEB-07Status:Data Taking
48 12 officially acknowledged high energy physics experiments. From this table one should notice the fact that in the huge CERN Laboratory exists only12 officially acknowledged high energy physics experiments.There is 6 planned experiments at LHC:ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEMandan other 6 registered experiments at SPS:CNGS1(OPERA), CNGS2(ICARUS), NA58(COMPASS), NA61(SHINE), NA62, NA63.Hungary has relative large groups in CMS and ALICE, but they representonly a small minority amongst the few thousand participants.In the small SHINE/NA61 experiment already 10 people represent a strong contingent,but our role even more significantbecause this is the only experiment in CERNwhere Hungarians are occupying leading positions:G Vesztergombi together with M. Gazdzidki are the spokespersons,responsible separately for the proton- and heavy ion physics, respectively.Beyond these administrative posts it is more important that the position of RUNcoordination is also in Hungarian hand. Z. Fodor (RMKI) is the Technical Coordinator,who is the commander of the real experimental work on the floor,knowing all the technical and scientific details.
52 Detector development – engineering The NA49 data acquisition rate was limited to Hz with a duty factor of 25% (effective rate around 1 Hz) and that seriously limited the statistics that could be collected for all measurements, includingthe high pT measurements.With this upgrade we can achieve a readout rate in excess of 40 Hz.An additional factor of 2 will be gained by reducing the sampling frequency of drift electrons .An overall readout rate exceeding 80 Hz will be thus achieved.With the typical 25% duty factor of the SPS that will result in an effective rate in excess of 20 Hz. A total of 240 MB and 8 CD were produced.PCI-busin„1” PCIn ALICE detector one finds similar TPC as in SHINE, which has about only 3 timesmore (500,000) pads, but using 500 DDL channels and 200 CPU units to collect the data.In case of the SHINE detector, however, one uses about 60 times smaller number (8) ofDDL channels and 200 times less number of CPUs, i.e. the new SHINE-DAQ systemcapable to handle similar order of magnitude data volume by a SINGLE COMPUTER!!!