Az előadás letöltése folymat van. Kérjük, várjon

Az előadás letöltése folymat van. Kérjük, várjon

Általános Kémiához ábrák, etc. 2007. ősz. ÁLTALÁNOS KÉMIA I. éves Kémia BSc évf. (Fizkém-en adott bemutatóból) Cél, feladat: A kémiai fogalomrendszer,

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Az előadások a következő témára: "Általános Kémiához ábrák, etc. 2007. ősz. ÁLTALÁNOS KÉMIA I. éves Kémia BSc évf. (Fizkém-en adott bemutatóból) Cél, feladat: A kémiai fogalomrendszer,"— Előadás másolata:

1 Általános Kémiához ábrák, etc ősz

2 ÁLTALÁNOS KÉMIA I. éves Kémia BSc évf. (Fizkém-en adott bemutatóból) Cél, feladat: A kémiai fogalomrendszer, gondolkodásmód bemutatása, s ezzel a tételes tárgyak előkészítése. Alapfogalmak: rendszeresen, precízen Bonyolultabb fogalmak: halljanak róla, szokjanak a gondolathoz, még akkor is, ha nem ért(het)ik pontosan.

3 Tartalom: I. Alapfogalmak (A) II. Az anyag atomi - molekuláris szerkezete. (B) III. Az anyag makroszkopikus megjelenése. IV. Elektrokémia (A) V. Reakciókinetika (A) VI. A kémiai kötés kvantummechanikai leírása (B) Forma: kréta és vetítés; mellékletek –egyre inkább jegyzetként használható Vizsga : írásbeli (belépő) + szóbeli (egy A, egy B tétel)

4 Elérhetőség a hálón: a Kémiai Intézet honlapján, Fogarasi alatt, illetve: knak-06/index.html Vizsgatételek, ősz. I. Alapfogalmak (A) 1. A modern kémia kialakulása: a súlyviszony-törvények, Dalton atomelmélete. Az Avogadro- tétel hatása a kémiai kötésről alkotott képre. Az atomok tömege. 2. Az atom mai fogalmának kialakulása: Thompson, ill. Rutherford kísérlete; a Bohr-modell, ill. a kvantummechanikai szemlélet. Az atom felépítése, izotópok, tömegdefektus. Relatív atomtömegek. A mól fogalma. Az atommag összetétele. 3. Mérések és mértékegységek. Az SI-mértékrendszer, prefixumok. Származtatott mennyiségek. Extenzív és intenzív mennyiség. Legegyszerűbb labormérések (a nyomás, térfogat, hőmérséklet mérése). 4. Sztöchiometria I: vegyjel, képlet, reakcióegyenlet. Oldatok és koncentrációk. Ionreakciók; az elektrolitok Arrhenius-féle elmélete. Sav-bázis-elméletek. 5. Sztöchiometria II: redoxi reakciók, oxidációs szám. Egyenletírás, félreakciók. Titrimetria.

5 II. Az anyag atomi - molekuláris szerkezete. (B) 6. A kvantumosság megjelenése a fizikában: a H-atom színképe, a feketetest-sugárzás, a fotoelektromos hatás. Atomok 7. A H-atom Bohr-modellje. 8. A mikrovilág kvantummechanikai leírása: az anyag kettős természete (az elektron mint hullám, a fény mint részecske), a Heisenberg-féle határozatlansági elv, a Schrödinger-egyenlet. 9. A H-atom kvantummechanikai modellje: kvantumszámok, elektronspin, pályák; elektroneloszlás. 10. Atomok elektronszerkezete és a periódusos rendszer: atompályák, pályaenergia, a Pauli-elv. Elektron­konfigurációk. 11. A periódusos rendszer és elektronszerkezeti alapja. Atomi tulajdonságok: ionizációs energia és elektronaffinitás. Az elektronegativitás különböző definíciói. Az atom-(ion-)rádiusz kérdése. Molekulák:a kémiai kötés egyszerű (Lewis-féle) elmélete 12. Ionos kötés és az oktett-elv. A nemesgáz-szabály értelmezése a Born-Haber körfolyamat tükrében. Kovalens kötés: a Lewis-képletek; rezonancia-szerkezetek. 13. A datív kötés, koordinációs komplexek; izoméria, elektronszerkezet. Lewis sav-bázis elmélete.

6 III. Az anyag makroszkopikus megjelenése. III.1. Halmazállapotok és fizikai tulajdonságok (A) Gázok 14. Az általános gáztörvény; gázkeverék: móltört, parciális nyomás. A moláris tömeg meghatározása. A kinetikus gázelmélet alapjai: a nyomás kapcsolata az átlagos molekulasebességgel. 15. Átlagos kinetikus energia és hőmérséklet; az ekvipartíció elve. Diffúziósebesség. A sebességeloszlás Maxwell-Boltzmann törvénye. Reális gázok. Kondenzált fázisok: folyadékok és szilárd anyagok 16. Intermolekuláris kölcsönhatások: a három fő típus leírása. 17. Folyadékok általános jellemzése. Felületi feszültség, kompresszibilitás, viszkozitás. 18. A kristályos szerkezet: a kristályok rendszerezése; a röntgendiffrakció elve. Polimorfia. 19. Fázisátalakulások. Egyensúlyi gőznyomás és a forráspont. Kritikus hőmérséklet. Fázisdiagramok (víz és szén-dioxid). III.2. Többkomponensű rendszerek, az anyagi rendszerek csoportosítása. (A) 20. Valódi oldatok: az oldékonység hőmérsékletfüggése; gázok oldódása folyadékban (Henry-törvény). Oldatok gőznyomása: a Raoult-törvény. 21. Folyadékelegyek desztillációja: kétkomponensű, ideális elegy viselkedését bemutató diagram és számpélda. Erős eltérés az ideális viselkedéstől: azeotrop elegyek. 22. Kolligatív tulajdonságok: fagyáspont-csökkenés és forráspont-emelkedés; ozmózisnyomás. III.3. A folyamatok energetikája (termokémia) (A) 24. Hőmennyiség és hőkapacitás. Reakcióhő, termokémiai egyenletek, a Hess-tétel. A belsőenergia. Oldáshők. Fűtési-hűtési görbék. 25. Térfogati munka, entalpia. Entalpiadiagramok. Képződéshők, standard állapot.

7 III.4. A termodinamika alapjai, a folyamatok iránya, egyensúly (B) 26. Termodinamikai alapfogalmak. Az I. főtétel. A folyamatok irányát megszabó kvalitatív elv: a "rendezetlenség" növekedése. 27. Az entrópia mint a rendezetlenség számszerű mértéke; a statisztikus értelmezés bemutatása: kétatomos molekulák mikroállapotai. Standard moláris entrópiák, reakcióentrópia. 28. A környezet entrópiaváltozása (kapcsolatteremtés a reakcióhővel). A II. főtétel. A szabadentalpia defi­níciója; G mint a spontán változás ismérve. Képződési szabadentalpiák. 29. A kémiai egyensúly fogalma, a tömeghatás törvénye. Az egyensúly mint G minimuma. Az egyensúlyi állandó definíciója  G o alapján. 30. Az egyensúly gázokban, K p és K c. Az egyensúlyi összetétel eltolása: a Le Chatelier-elv. 31. Egyensúly vizes elektrolitoldatokban. A pH fogalma. A víz-ionszorzat. Gyenge savak - bázisok, K s és K b kapcsolata konjugált párokra. pH-számítás, disszociációfok. Sóoldatok: hidrolízis. Többértékű savak-bázisok. 32. Puffer-oldatok. disszociációja. Sav-bázis titrálások: titrálási görbe, az ekvivalencia-pont pH-ja, indikátorok. 33. Heterogén egyensúlyok: K p alakja gáz/szilárd egyensúly esetén; az oldhatósági szorzat. Komplexek stabilitási állandója.

8 IV. Elektrokémia (A) 34. A galváncellák működési elve. Celladiagramok. Cellapotenciál, standard elektródpotenciálok (redoxipotenciálok); a spontán redoxi folyamatok iránya. 35. A cellapotenciál termodinamikai leírása: a cellapotenciál kapcsolata a szabadentalpiával, ill. az egyensúlyi állandóval. Függés a koncentrációtól: a Nernst-képlet. A pH mérése. 36. Az elektrolízis folyamata és kvantitatív törvénye. Bomlásfeszültség. Elektrokémia a gyakorlatban: galvánelemek és akkumulátorok, elektrolízis az iparban. V. Reakciókinetika (A) 37. A reakciósebesség definíciója. Reakciórend és sebességi állandó. A koncentráció időbeli változása elsőrendű reakcióban; felezési idők. 38. A sebesség függése a hőmérséklettől: ütközési elmélet, aktiválási energia, aktivált komplex. Az Arrhenius-egyenlet. Katalízis. VI. A kémiai kötés kvantummechanikai leírása (B) 39. A H 2 -molekula: minimum a potenciálfelületen. A molekulapálya (MO) -elmélet.

9 A kémia felosztása különböző lehet Egy könyvkiadó: WileyEurope > Chemistry Browse Chemistry subjects Analytical Chemistry Biochemistry Chemical Engineering Computational Chemistry & Molecular Modeling Electrochemistry Environmental Chemistry General Chemistry Industrial Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Physical Chemistry Polymer Science & Technology Special Topics Spectroscopy

10 WileyEurope > Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Biochemistry Chemical Engineering Computational Chemistry & Molecular Modeling Electrochemistry Environmental Chemistry General Chemistry Industrial Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Physical Chemistry Polymer Science & Technology Special Topics Spectroscopy ACS Divisions Agricultural & Food Chemistry Agrochemicals Analytical Chemistry Biochemical Technology Biological Chemistry Carbohydrate Chemistry Cellulose, Paper & Textile Chemical Toxicology Colloid & Surface Chemistry Computers in Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Fluorine Chemistry Fuel Chemistry Geochemistry Industrial & EngineeringChemistry Inorganic Chemistry Medicinal Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry &Technology Organic Chemistry Petroleum Chemistry Physical Chemistry Polymer Chemistry Polymeric Materials: Rubber A kémia felosztása különböző lehet

11 Kémia mindenhol

12 TOP 50 CHEMICALS: RankBillions of lb Sulfuric acid Nitrogen Oxygen Ethylene Lime(b) Ammonia Phosphoric acid Sodium hydroxide Propylene Chlorine Sodium carbonate(c) Methyl tert-butyl ether Ethylene dichloride Nitric acid Ammonium nitrate(d) Benzene Carbon dioxide(f) Hydrochloric acid Acetic acid Titanium dioxide Acetone Bisphenol A

13 Top 50 Chemical Companies in 1999 RankCompanyTotal salesChemical salesChemical operating profits Rank CompanyTotal salesChemical salesChem. Oper. profits ($ M)1999 ($ M) % of 1999 ($ M) % total 11BASF (Germany)34, , %1, DuPont (U.S.)29, , , Bayer (Germany)29, , , Dow Chemical (U.S.)18, , , Exxon Mobil (U.S.) b 185, , , ICI (U.K.)13, , Shell (U.K./Netherlands)149, , Akzo Nobel (Netherlands)15, , Degussa-Hüls (Germany) c 13, , BP Amoco (U.K.)101,180.09, , Total (France) c 42,069.09, Elf Aquitaine (France)37,872.89, Sumimoto Chemical (Japan)8,342.98, Henkel (Germany)12,104.07, Nemzeti jövedelmekhez hasonlítva: Comparative economic indicators, 2000 Hungary Slovenia Slovakia GDP (US$ bn) GDP per head (US$ at PPP)9,03514,2508,718

14 March 12, 2002 : The survey, published in a recent issue of the Society's publication, Chemical & Engineering News (C & EN), ranks the global top 50 by their chemical sales. It also charts their total sales, chemical operating profits and capital spending

15 The Consumer Law PageThe Consumer Law Page: Articles: TOP "10" HAZARDOUS HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALSBy Richard AlexanderBy Richard Alexander AIR FRESHENERS: Most air fresheners interfere with your ability to smell by coating your nasal passages with an oil film, or by releasing a nerve deadening agent. Known toxic chemicals found in an air freshener: Formaldehyde: Highly toxic, known carcinogen. Phenol: When phenol touches your skin it can cause it to swell, burn, peel, and break out in hives. Can cause cold sweats,convulsions, circulatory collapse, coma and even death. AMMONIA: It is a very volatile chemical, it is very damaging to your eyes, respiratory tract and skin. BLEACH: It is a strong corrosive. It will irritate or burn the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. It may cause pulmonary edema or vomiting and coma if ingested. WARNING: never mix bleach with ammonia it may cause fumes which can be DEADLY. NH2Cl, klóramin keletkezhet DISHWASHER DETERGENTS: Most products contain chlorine in a dry form that is highly concentrated.# 1 cause of child poisonings, according to poison control centers. DRAIN CLEANER: Most drain cleaners contain lye, hydrochloric acid or trichloroethane. Lye: Caustic, burns skin and eyes, if ingested will damage esophagus and stomach. Hydrochloric acid: Corrosive, eye and skin irritant, damages kidneys, liver and digestive tract. Trichloroethane: Eye and skin irritant, nervous system depressant; damages liver and kidneys. contnd,.

16 FURNITURE POLISH: Petroleum Distillates: Highly flammable, can cause skin and lung cancer. Phenol: (see Air fresheners, Phenol.) Nitrobenzene: Easily absorbed through the skin, extremely toxic. MOLD AND MILDEW CLEANERS: Chemicals contained are: Sodium hypochlorite: Corrosive, irritates or burns skin and eyes, causes fluid in the lungs which can lead to coma or death. Formaldehyde: Highly toxic, known carcinogen. Irritant to eyes, nose, throat, and skin. May cause nausea, headaches, nosebleeds, dizziness, memory loss and shortness of breath. OVEN CLEANER: Sodium Hydroxide (Lye): Caustic, strong irritant, burns to both skin and eyes. Inhibits reflexes, will cause severe tissue damage if swallowed. ANTIBACTERIAL CLEANERS: may contain: Triclosan: Absorption through the skin can be tied to liver damage. (Ált. fertőtlenítőszer – kórházak : LAUNDRY ROOM PRODUCTS: Sodium or calcium hypocrite!? nyilván hypochlorite: Highly corrosive, irritates or burns skin, eyes or respiratory tract. Linear alkylate sulfonate: Absorbed through the skin. Known liver damaging agent. Sodium Tripolyphosphate: Irritates skin and mucous membranes, causes vomiting. Easily absorbed through the skin TOILET BOWL CLEANERS: Hydrochloric acid: Highly corrosive, irritant to both skin and eyes. Damages kidneys and liver. Hypochlorite Bleach: Corrosive, irritates or burns eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause pulmonary edema, vomiting or coma if ingested. Contact with other chemicals may cause chlorine fumes which may be fatal

17 VÁLOGATÁSOK KURRENS EREDMÉNYEKBŐL: September 3, 2007 Volume 85, Number 36, p. 7 When Organics Fail, Try Water Ladder polyethers form readily from epoxides in water Complex ladder polyether natural products, so named for their runglike structure, are the active toxins found in the harmful algal blooms known as red tides. Red tides cause devastating ecological damage, so scientists hope that by studying this water-promoted cascade reaction, they will gain a better understanding of how and why these toxins form

18 Mercury Fulminate Revealed Researchers finally determine X-ray structure of infamous explosive Wolfgang BeckWolfgang Beck and Thomas M. Klapötke, professors at Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich, Germany, and their colleagues report that, as expected, the molecule Hg(CNO) 2 is nearly linear, with the nitrogens carrying a positive charge and the oxygens a negative charge. The mercury atom is bound to two carbon atoms, with the bonding arrangement O–N C– Hg–C N–O (Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 2007, 633, 1417). This connectivity and linear structure was predicted by a number of groups, including Beck's and Klapötke's. Other groups, however, had predicted that the O atoms were bound to Hg.Thomas M. Klapötke Mercury fulminate is sensitive to friction, heat, and shock, and it decomposes violently the super-sensitive explosive with a nefarious 300-year history, has been so difficult to handle in the lab that only now have scientists finally determined its crystal structure.

19 September 6, 2004 Vol. 82, Iss. 36 VÁLOGATÁSOK KURRENS EREDMÉNYEKBŐL:

20 INHIBITORS TARGET KEY TB ENZYME Iminosugars may provide leads for new class of tuberculosis drugs Scientists in England have designed and synthesized the first inhibitors of an enzyme that is essential for the survival of the tuberculosis bacterium [Org. Biomol. Chem., 2, 2418 (2004)]. The compounds might lead to better treatments for TB, which annually infects 8 million to 10 million people and kills 2 million to 3 million. e and kills 2 million to 3 million.

21 October 3, 2007 Also appeared in print Oct. 8, 2007, p. 11 Inorganic Chemistry Mercury Tetrafluoride Synthesized Elusive Hg(IV) species has been prepared in solid argon, neon Jyllian Kemsley Mercury, a group 12 element with a valence electron configuration of s 2 d 10, is generally considered to be limited to the +1 and +2 oxidation states. Theoretical work, however, has long predicted that mercury could be stable in the +4 oxidation state. In a fundamental advance that opens new possibilities for mercury compounds, that prediction has now been confirmed with the successful synthesis of HgF 4 using matrix isolation techniques (Angew. Chem., DOI: /anie ).

22 SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY RDX LINKS RUSSIAN CRASHES Powerful explosive found in the debris of two planes that crashed Traces of RDX, a common military explosive that is also known as hexogen or cyclonite, were found at the crash sites of two Russian planes that went down within minutes of each other on Aug. 24, Russian authorities report. RDX was also used in a suicide bombing at a Moscow metro station on Aug. 31, news reports say. "RDX is a very powerful explosive," says Jimmie C. Oxley, a professor of chemistry at the University of Rhode Island. "A terrorist wouldn't need to conceal very much." RDX has an explosive power considerably greater than that of TNT, is chemically stable, and is more susceptible than TNT to shock detonation.

23 "Molekuláris giroszkóp"

24 COMPOSITE MATERIALS Custom blending of materials with distinct characteristics leads to advanced composites with tailor- made properties IT'S A BIRD, IT'S A PLANE... Advanced composite materials in the V- 22 Osprey's tilt-rotor system play a key role in enabling the sophisticated plane to take off and land on aircraft carriers like a helicopter and fly like a turboprop airplane.

25 SHEET MOLDING Sheets of a composite molding material can be prepared by feeding glass or carbon fibers (chopped or intact) and a polymer-based resin (orange trough) between a pair of plastic films

26 Gyönyörűszép Molekulák One example, reported by One example, reported by Bryan W. Eichhorn's group at the University of Maryland, is the 20 ] 3– ion. This cluster consists of an As 20 pentagonal dodecahedron that encapsulates a Ni 12 icosahedron, which contains an arsenic atom at its center. The As 20 cage is related to the smallest fullerene, C 20 C&EN May 5, 2003Bryan W. Eichhorn

27 Source: C&EN/ April 14, 2003 MOLECULAR DESIGN ION RECOGNITION System exploits weak interactions to attract anion to cation in capsule A new approach to anion recognition that uses electrostatic and hydrogen- bonding interactions has been developed by chemists at the University of Missouri, Columbia. "For the first time, we have utilized a single molecule to completely encapsulate an ion pair in polar media," chemistry professor Jerry L. Atwood tells C&EN. "We envision that resins incorporating these capsules could be used in anion sensing in environmental applications." Atwood and postdoc Agnieszka Szumna embedded a tetramethylammonium cation in the pocket of a resorcin[4]arene molecule functionalized with bulky amide substituents. The complex selectively binds to a chloride anion in solvents such as methanol [Chem. Comm., 2003, 940]. Jerry L. Atwood

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29 Erythropoietin In infants, EPO is produced mostly in the liver, but the kidneys become the primary site of EPO synthesis shortly after birth. EPO production is stimulated by reduced oxygen content in arterial blood in the kidneys. Circulating EPO binds to receptors on the surface of erythroid progenitor cells that in turn mature into red blood cells.….. contnd Understanding the function of endogenous hormones and putting them to good use to treat diseases has been one of the great accomplishments of modern medicine. One natural hormone that has turned out to be a blockbuster drug--but not without some controversy--is erythropoietin (EPO). Ezt is tudjuk …… EPO EPO is a glycoprotein (protein-sugar conjugate) that serves as the primary regulator of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in mammals. It stimulates bone marrow stem cells to differentiate into red blood cells and controls hemoglobin synthesis and red blood cell concentration. Human EPO is a 30,400-dalton molecule containing 165 amino acids and four carbohydrate chains that incorporate sialic acid residues. There are several forms of EPO, designated by Greek letters, that differ only in the carbohydrate content.

30 Human EPO was first isolated and later purified from urine in the 1970s. Interest in developing clinical uses for EPO led to the discovery of the gene encoding EPO, and several groups devised recombinant DNA methods to produce EPO by the mid-1980s. Recombinant EPO quickly made it to market to treat anemia resulting from a host of conditions, primarily kidney failure, HIV infection in patients treated with AZT, and cancer chemotherapy. Doses of EPO are given by injection one or more times per week to maintain a normal hematocrit level, the ratio of red blood cell volume to total blood volume. Generally, EPO might be prescribed for any condition where blood oxygen levels are depressed and to help eliminate the potential need for blood transfusions. …… Enzyme immunoassays can provide a measure of serum EPO levels, but the tests can't determine if the EPO is natural or produced recombinantly and injected by unscrupulous athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency has now developed combination urine and blood tests that can detect EPO abuse by athlet.

31 Az anyag atomi-molekuláris szerkezete

32 Robert Boyle (1627–1691) was born at Lismore Castle, Munster, Ireland, the fourteenth child of the Earl of Cork. As a young man of means, he was tutored at home and on the Continent. He spent the later years of the English Civil Wars at Oxford, reading and experimenting with his assistants and colleagues. This group was committed to the New Philosophy, which valued observation and experiment at least as much as logical thinking in formulating accurate scientific understanding. At the time of the restoration of the British monarchy in 1660, Boyle played a key role in founding the Royal Society to nurture this new view of science. Although Boyle's chief scientific interest was chemistry, his first published scientific work, New Experiments Physico-Mechanicall, Touching the Spring of the Air and its Effects (1660), concerned the physical nature of air, as displayed in a brilliant series of experiments in which he used an air pump to create a vacuum. The second edition of this work, published in 1662, delineated the quantitative relationship that Boyle derived from experimental values, later known as "Boyle's law": that the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure.

33 Robert Boyle at the age of thirty-seven, with his air pump in the background. François Diodati reengraved this image from an engraving by William Faithorne, Opera varia (1680). Courtesy Edgar Fahs Smith Memorial Collection, Department of Special Collections, University of Pennsylvania Library.

34 Boyle was an advocate of corpuscularism, a form of atomism that was slowly displacing Aristotelian and Paracelsian views of the world. Instead of defining physical reality and analyzing change in terms of Aristotelian substance and form and the classical four elements of earth, air, fire, and water— or the three Paracelsian elements of salt, sulfur, and mercury—corpuscularism discussed reality and change in terms of particles and their motion. Boyle believed that chemical experiments could demonstrate the truth of the corpuscularian philosophy. In this context he defined the term element in Sceptical Chymist (1661): "... certain primitive and simple, or perfectly unmingled bodies; which not being made of any other bodies, or of one another, are the ingredients of which all those called perfectly mixt bodies are immediately compounded, and into which they are ultimately resolved."

35 Robert Boyle: The Skeptical Chemist, 1661 (!) "Én megpróbáltam a kémiát más szempontok szerint művelni, nem úgy, ahogy az eddigi kémikusok tették, hanem ahogy egy tudóshoz illik.".... "Bár viselnék az emberek inkább a tudományok előrehaladását szívükön, mint önző érdeküket, akkor könnyen belátnák, hogy nagyobb szolgálatot tennének a világnak, ha minden erejüket kísérletek végzésére és megfigyelések gyűjtésére fordítanák, ahelyett hogy kísérleti alapozás nélküli elméleteket állítanának fel. "

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39 The Burning lenses

40 Calcination of a piece of metal with the burning lenses

41 Állandó súlyviszonyok törvényeTöbbszörös súlyviszonyok törvénye Joseph Louis Proust (1754 – 1826) John Dalton (1766 – 1844)

42 In 1811 Avogadro hypothesized that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. From this hypothesis it followed that relative molecular weights of any two gases are the same as the ratio of the densities of the two gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. Avogadro also astutely reasoned that simple gases were not formed of solitary atoms but were instead compound molecules of two or more atoms. (Avogadro did not actually use the word atom; at the time the words atom and molecule were used almost interchangeably. He talked about three kinds of "molecules," including an "elementary molecule"—what we would call an atom.) Thus Avogadro was able to overcome the difficulty that Dalton and others had encountered when Gay-Lussac reported that above 100 o C the volume of water vapor was twice the volume of the oxygen used to form it. According to Avogadro, the molecule of oxygen had split into two atoms in the course of forming water vapor. Curiously, Avogadro's hypothesis was neglected for half a century after it was first published. Many reasons for this neglect have been cited, including some theoretical problems, such as Jöns Jakob Berzelius's "dualism," which asserted that compounds are held together by the attraction of positive and negative electrical charges, making it inconceivable that a molecule composed of two electrically similar atoms—as in oxygen—could exist. In addition, Avogadro was not part of an active community of chemists: the Italy of his day was far from the centers of chemistry in France, Germany, England, and Sweden, where Berzelius was based.Jöns Jakob Berzelius's Avogadro was a native of Turin, where his father, Count Filippo Avogadro, was a lawyer and government leader in the Piedmont (Italy was then still divided into independent countries). Avogadro succeeded to his father's title, earned degrees in law, and began to practice as an ecclesiastical lawyer. After obtaining his formal degrees, he took private lessons in mathematics and sciences, including chemistry. For much of his career as a chemist he held the chair of physical chemistry at the University of Turin. Amedeo Avogadro. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac’s law of combining volumes (1808) (when two gases react, the volumes of the reactants and products—if gases— are in whole number ratios) tended to support Dalton’s atomic theory. Dalton did not in fact accept Gay-Lussac's work, but the Italian chemist Amedeo Avogadro (1776–1856) saw it as the key to a better understanding of molecular constituency.

43 Avogadro EREDETI CIKKEBOL! : A TELJES SZOVEGET FILE-BAN ELTETTEM: avogadro-original Essay on a Manner of Determining the Relative Masses of the Elementary Molecules of Bodies, and the Proportions in Which They Enter into These CompoundsMolecules Journal de Physique 73, (1811) [Alembic Club Reprint No. 4] I. M. Gay-Lussac has shown in an interesting Memoir (Mémoires de la Société d'Arcueil, Tome II.) that gases always unite in a very simple proportion by volume, and that when the result of the union is a gas, its volume also is very simply related to those of its components. But the quantitative proportions of substances in compounds seem only to depend on the relative number of molecules which combine, and on the number of composite molecules which result. It must then be admitted that very simple relations also exist between the volumes of gaseous substances and the numbers of simple or compound molecules which form them. Kiemeles FG: The first hypothesis to present itself in this connection, and apparently even the only admissible one, is the supposition that the number of integral molecules in any gases is always the same for equal volumes, or always proportional to the volumes. Indeed, if we were to suppose that the number of molecules contained in a given volume were different for different gases, it would scarcely be possible to conceive that the law regulating the distance of molecules could give in all cases relations as simple as those which the facts just detailed compel us to acknowledge between the volume and the number of molecules. On the other hand, it is very well conceivable that the molecules of gases being at such a distance that their mutual attraction cannot be exercised, their varying attraction for caloric may be limited to condensing the atmosphere formed by this fluid having any greater extent in the one case than in the other, and, consequently, without the distance between the molecules varying; or, in other words, without the number of molecules contained in a given volume being different. Dalton, it is true, has proposed a hypothesis directly opposed to this, namely that the quantity of caloric is always the same for the molecules of all bodies whatsoever in the gaseous state, and that the greater or less attraction for caloric only results in producing a greater or less condensation of this quantity around the molecules, and thus varying the distance between the molecules themselves. But in our present ignorance of the manner in which this attraction of the molecules for caloric is exerted, there is nothing to decide us à priori in favour of the one of these hypotheses rather than the other; and we should rather be inclined to adopt a neutral hypothesis, which would make the distance between the molecules and the quantities of caloric vary according to unknown laws, were it not that the hypothesis we have just proposed is based on that simplicity of relation between the volumes of gases on combination, which would appear to be otherwise inexplicable.MemoircaloricDalton

44 Maxwell, around 1875, describing atoms : "foundation stones of the material universe... unbroken and unworn. They continue to this day as they were created  perfect in number and measure and weigth." (Scientific American, Aug. 1997, p. 73.)

45 Feltörik a diót Az első csapás az oszthatatlan atomra: J.J. Thomson, 1897: az elektron felfedezése A pudding-modell: Az atom mai fogalmának kialakulása

46 Rutherford, 1911: az atommag

47 A kvantumosság megjelenése a fizikában: 1. a H-atom színképe, 2. feketetest-sugárzás, 3. fotoelektromos effektus

48 Folytonos spektrum Vonalas emissziós sp. Vonalas abszorpciós sp. Színképek A spektroszkópia alapja: a fényt komponenseire bontjuk

49 Angstrom svéd (asztro)fizikus: az atomos hidrogén spektruma a látható fény tartományában Négy vonalat észlelt: 410 nm, 434 nm, 486 nm, and 656 nm. Anders Ångström ( ) One of the leading founders of the science of spectroscopy. He was a pioneer, in 1853, to observe and study the spectrum of hydrogen which was the foundation for Balmer´s formula. After leaving the observatory for the professorship in physics at Uppsala university ( ) he continued his spectral research.

50 Balmer (matematika tanár): a H-atom spektrumvonalaira egyszerű képletet talált 1/ = const. (1/ /n 2 ) ahol n = 3,4,5,6 A teljesebb spektrum:

51 Egy példa: a kozmikus háttér spektruma egy blackbody spektrum, ahol a hőmérséklet, T B = K Cosmic Microwave Background The CMB has the spectrum of a blackbody. A blackbody spectrum is produced by an isothermal, opaque and non-reflecting object. Usually a cavity with a small hole is used in the laboratory to make an opaque and non-reflective object. Radiation that enters the cavity through the hole will have to bounce off many walls before it returns to the outside, so even if the walls are only somewhat dark, the hole will appear to be completely black. The diagram at right shows such a cavity, with the blue incoming ray being absorbed completely while the red rays show the outgoing thermal radiation. A simple gedanken experiment shows that the spectrum emitted by a blackbody can only depend on its temperature T.blackbody A fekete-test sugárzása

52 A fotoelektromos effektus (2005: Einstein-év) A foton energiája kvantált E = h Mi a rossz a rajzon? Hiányzik a feszültségforrás

53 Az eredeti kísérlet picit más volt, a kollektoron taszító, negatív feszültség In 1902, Lenard studied how the energy of the emitted photoelectrons varied with the intensity of the light.... To measure the energy of the ejected electrons, Lenard charged the collector plate negatively, to repel the electrons coming towards it. Thus, only electrons ejected with enough kinetic energy to get up this potential hill would contribute to the current. Lenard discovered that there was a well defined minimum voltage that stopped any electrons getting through, we'll call it V stop. To his surprise, he found that V stop did not depend at all on the intensity of the light! Doubling the light intensity doubled the number of electrons emitted, but did not affect the energies of the emitted electrons.

54 Heisenberg és Bohr A Coulomb-törvény, skaláris formában: F = k c q 1 q 2 /r 2 k c = 1/(4πε) ahol ε a vakuum permittivitása. ε = 8.854×10 −12 C 2 N -1 m -2. A Bohr-modell, 1913:


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