Az előadás letöltése folymat van. Kérjük, várjon

Az előadás letöltése folymat van. Kérjük, várjon

Dual nationality and beyond – disputes in contemporary Hungary Kettős állampolgárság és ami mögötte van – viták a mai Magyarországon Dual nationality and.

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Az előadások a következő témára: "Dual nationality and beyond – disputes in contemporary Hungary Kettős állampolgárság és ami mögötte van – viták a mai Magyarországon Dual nationality and."— Előadás másolata:

1 Dual nationality and beyond – disputes in contemporary Hungary Kettős állampolgárság és ami mögötte van – viták a mai Magyarországon Dual nationality and beyond – disputes in contemporary Hungary Kettős állampolgárság és ami mögötte van – viták a mai Magyarországon Presentation by Boldizsár Nagy at the conference: „Dual nationality as a legal problem – a kettős állampolgárság mint jogi probléma” Budapest, 3 October 2005

2 Bugár Béla, a szlovák parlament alelnöke interjúja, Béla Bugár, deputy speaker of the Slovak parliament HVG, 2005 szeptember 15. „Butaság volt népszavazást kezdeményezni ilyen érzékeny kérdésben. A kettős állampolgárság számunkra, felvidéki magyarok számára a magyar nemzethez tartozást kifejező szimbolikus jelentőségű. De az ilyen szimbolikus gesztusoknak néha nagyobb a jelentőségük, mint annak, ha az embereknek több pénzt juttatunk.” „It was silly to initiate a referendum concerning such a sensitive issue. For us Hungarians in the „Felvidék” [Southern Slovakia] dual nationality has symbolic importance, expressing belonging to the Hungarian nation. But sometimes such symbolic gestures are more important then providing money to the people” „...nekünk ebben az országban hármas identitásunk van. Az állampolgári, egy értékrend szerinti és a nemzeti identitás. Ez Szlovákiában sokaknak nem tetszik ugyan, de én szlovák állampolgár, ugyanakkor európai keresztény vagyok, és a magyar nemzethez tartozom.” „..we in this country possess threefold identity. Although disliked by many in Slovakia, nevertheless I am at the same time a Slovak national, a European Christian and belong to the Hungarian nation.”

3 Bugár Béla, a szlovák parlament alelnöke interjúja, Béla Bugár, deputy speaker of the Slovak parliament Most valamennyi határon túli vezető kifejtette a miniszterelnök úrnak, hogy hosszú távon számunkra csak a kettős állampolgárság elfogadható. Now all the leaders of the transboundary minorities have stated to the prime Minister, that in the long term only dual nationality is acceptible. A kettős állampolgársággal semmiféle magyarországi jogot nem akarunk, különösen nem szeretnénk például, ha választójoggal járna With the dual nationality we do not want any rights within Hungary, especially we would not like (for example) if it entailed the right to vote.

4 EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR DEMOCRACY THROUGH LAW (VENICE COMMISSION) PAPER CONTAINING THE POSITION OF THE HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT IN RELATION TO THE ACT ON HUNGARIANS LIVING IN NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES – visited 2 October 2005 „1.8. When drawing up this piece of legislation, the Hungarian Government – and indeed the Parliament which adopted the Act by a 92% majority – set aside all aspirations for any kind of dual citizenship for persons belonging to Hungarian national minorities and living in the neighbouring countries, and instead preferred a system based on co- operation (see paras ). The Act is designed to encourage persons belonging to national minorities to stay in their home countries, thus preserving the cultural diversity of the region: in this way the Act provides secondary measures and benefits to support this aim. Contrary to some accusations, the aim is not to inspire persons belonging to national minorities to leave their home countries, but to reinforce their special identity and their relations with the kin state, Hungary.” The basic purpose and features of the Act : Recognition of the territorial integrity of neighbouring states: definite refusal of territorial revision and rejection of dual citizenship 2.3. In fact, the Act recognises that Hungarians abroad are citizens of the relevant states and clearly rejects the idea that the self-identification as Hungarians can be based on dual citizenship

5 Overview of the issues Goal (and its source) Solutions offered in the discourse Conceptual comments Legal and political factors in favour against Social (side) effects SymbolicSymbolic Exercise responsibility for the nation (Constitution 6 § (3) Dual nationality for ethnic Hungarians forming minority in neighbouring states - Nation – political community – citizenship: three not coinciding concepts - Ethnicization / tribalization - Nottebohm - Micheletti - Pleases opposition and the affected minorities - Provides EU citizenship benefits - Italy, Greece, Slovakia, Germany, Romania, Serbia- Montenegro etc.– special rules on minorities / diaspora - Resistance of affected neighbouring states - Danger of ethnic discrimination -Impossibility of proving that applicant is not-Hungarian - EU: fear from precedent (Romania, Lithuania. etc.) - Creates immigration to H. --contradicts goal of empowering minorities to stay - evokes welfare- chauvinism Hungarian nationals living abroad status - H. law already differentiates between nationals residing in or outside of H. - Jus sanguinis or individual option? Differentiated responsibility towards different groups (diaspora, minority in EU MS in Romania or in non- MS) - Does not extend to non- H. nationals - most of the minority -Questionable compatibility with equal treatment of EU citizens Membership in H. nation „status” -Embraces the minority and the diaspora - Assumes active identification by the individual - Differentiated responsibility towards different groups (diaspora, minority) -In line with the Venice Commission’s suggestion on strengthening cultural ties - Could lead to systemic combination of the „Status law” and the „Land of Birth Fund” and other benefits - Resistance of affected neighbouring states unless agreed in bilat. ways - Questionable compatibility with equal treatment of EU citizens - Will not satisfy opposition / minorities as to their practical goals

6 Overview of the issues Goal (and its source) Solutions offered in the discourse Conceptual commentsLegal and political factors In favour against Social (side) effects Sym- bolic cont’d Being treated as H. (Minorities) Dual nationality passport - Status Law and Hungarian Certificate should do it - Knowledge and (sub)conscious includes into historic-cultural nation, not documents See there- Increases tensions in country of birth - Undermines legitimacy of participation in political life in country of birth - Reinforces the claims to resources based on ethnic/historic entitlement PracticalPractical Travel right to Hungary after full application of Schengen (All actors) Long term national visa (All actors – codified in 2005) -The new visa does not entitle to work or study - Circumvents the Schengen limitations - Satisfies symbolic and practical (cultural, family) needs - It will be complicated to acquire – will be of help to few Enhances black labour Travel right to other EU countries (All actors) Passport for non- Hungarian nationals not resident in H. (Gov.) - Usually passports prove nationality and entitle to diplomatic and consular protection - Issuing to foreign nationals: exceptional (usually: refugees, stateless, laissez passer) - EU freedom of movement is nationality, not passport dependent Circumvents the Schengen limitations if recognized as a valid Hungarian passport - Common Consular Instructions and Common Manual: travel documents must be „issued in accordance with international rules” - Right of return – contradicts immigration rules Long term resident status Requires 5 years of residencePart of EU acquis - impeccable Creates immigration to H - contradicts goal of empowering minorities to stay

7 Suggested benchmarks for any solution The term „nation” must include both the minorities in the neighbouring countries and the diaspora The responsibility prescribed in Art. 6, para 3 covers both groups. The responsibility towards different segments of the nation is differentiated – the most benefit should go to minorities in neighbouring countries without the perspective of joining the EU International law and the EU acquis represent constraints - three options offer themselves –Stay within existing law –Exploit lacunae / act „sub rosa” –Challenge the law The decision on the option chosen is not only, not even primarily a domestic legal/political action: Hungary as a new and medium sized member of the EU is a significant actor forming trends within the EU / OSCE realm

8 Suggested benchmarks for any solution Any decision must conform to the Rawlsian demand of justice: would one chose the same rule behind the veil of ignorance, not knowing whether the minorities live on its territory or it is the kin country of the minority! Granting benefits to a limited circle of persons always entails a challenge by the excluded: therefore the rule on drawing the borderline between the in-group and the out-group (Hungarian – non Hungarian) must be defensible under the rule of law in front of an impartial tribunal

9 Present proposals 3 goals: -Amendment of the Constitution to extend to minority and diaspora - clear recognition of the cultural, linguistic and historic community -Creation of a document testifying the membership in this community of Hungarians -The facilitation of the entry into the Schengen area of Hungarians living in the neighbouring countries (which will not become EU citizens)

10 Thanks!Köszönöm! Boldizsár Nagy Eötvös Loránd University and Central European University Budapest


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