14 Stool that Suggests Fat Table 4-1. Six Categories of Diarrhea Interpreted in Terms of the Average Severity (– to +++) of Six Features of Diarrhea The Presence of BloodHigh Stool VolumeStool that Suggests FatAbruptness of OnsetNausea and VomitingCramping PainIngestive diarrhea–++++Toxic diarrhea++Malabsorptive diarrhea+–Maldigestive diarrheaHormonal diarrheaColonic diarrhea
16 Sárgaságok Overproduction jaundice Intravascular hemolysis, including ineffective hematopoiesisExtravascular hemolysis from hematomasCompetitive binding to albumin by certain drugsEponymic jaundiceGilbert’s syndrome (idiopathic unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)Crigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital nangemolytic jaundice)Dubin-Johnson syndrome (chromic idiopathic jaundice)Rotor’s syndrome (familial chronic conjugated hyperbilirubinemia)Uptake-conjugation jaundiceDiffuse hepatocellular diseaseHepatitis due to infectious agentsHepatocellular toxicity from alcohol, drugs and other toxinsDiffuse infiltrative disease of the liverMalignant infiltrations, like carcinomas and lymphomasBenign infiltrations, like sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, hemochromatosisExcretory jaundiceDrugs that interfere with bilirubin secretion, like 17-alpha alkylated steroidsDrugs that impair intrahepatic bile flow, like estrogen and phenothiazinesDisease of intrahepatic biliary radicals, like pericholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosisObstructive jaundiceIntraductal disease, like stones, strictures, sclerosing cholangitis, and cholangiocarcinomaExtraductal disease, like pancreatic edema, pancreatic carcinoma, and malignant or inflammatory lymph nodes at the porta hepatis
24 A has megtekintéseThe various configurations of the abdominal silhouette. In all silhouettes, X is te xiphoid process, U is the umbilicus, and P is the pubis. (A) The configuration of the abdomen is obesity or gaseous distension: the umbilicus is inverted. (B) The configuration in ascites: the umbilicus is everted. (C) The scaphoid (boat-shaped) configuration of slender people. (D) The configuration in the presence of a lower abdominal mass, a distended bladder for example. (E) The configuration in the presence of an upper abdominal mass, an enlarged liver, for example
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