Az előadások a következő témára: "Veszélyelemzés és a Kritikus Szabályozási Pontok meghatározása"— Előadás másolata:
1Veszélyelemzés és a Kritikus Szabályozási Pontok meghatározása Modul 03 - lecke 03Veszélyelemzés és a Kritikus Szabályozási Pontok meghatározásaThis lecture will discuss some of the most difficult aspects of HACCP.
2VeszélyelemzésMeg kell határozni, hogy melyek azok a veszélyek, amelyek kiküszöbölése vagy elfogadható szintre csökkentése lényeges az élelmiszer-biztonság szempontjából(Codex Alimentarius 1997)In the context of HACCP, the term Hazard Analysis means to collect and evaluate information on hazards. We have already explained that to prevent hazards, the conditions leading to their presence have to be evaluated. Hazards can originate from the raw materials, the line and line environment, and the personnel handling the food, but even if they enter the final product, this does not mean that their levels are dangerous. Therefore, hazard analysis is also the process of deciding whether potential hazards are significant and if they need to be controlled. Hazards and control measures are elements which are described in the HACCP plan, which will be discussed later.
3A veszélyelemzés követelményei Milyen információk szükségesek:Melyek azok az anyagok, melyek a tanulmány elvégzése alatt előfordulhatnak az élelmiszerbenMi a veszélyek előfordulásának valószínűségét és a káros egészségügyi hatásuk súlyosságátMilyen a veszély mennyiségi szintjétMelyek azok a körülmények, melyek következtében az elfogadhatatlan szint kialakulhatFor instance, hazard analysis determines which agents could be present in the food under study. Epidemiological data have linked foods with particular foodborne pathogens, chemicals or physical hazards, for example: canned foods and C. botulinum, eggs and Salmonella, milk and the Mycobacterium bovis responsible for tuberculosis. These agents may be present in the raw material, but their levels may not be high enough to cause disease. To decide whether the presence of an agent in the raw material is a significant hazard, we have to know the levels at which it may cause disease. We also have to know which conditions can cause a pathogen to increase to an unacceptable level, the severity or magnitude of a health effect, and the likelihood of its occurrence.
4Milyen területekre terjed ki a veszélyelemzés? Nyersanyagok, hozzávalókTermék tulajdonságaiFeldolgozási körülményekCsomagolásTárolás és szállításElőkészítés és felhasználásCélcsoportPotential hazards can be present in raw materials and in ingredients, or may be introduced or increase during processing. A product formulation may allow a pathogen to multiply to unacceptable levels, i.e. to become a significant hazard. Packaging may prevent a food from recontamination but may also create conditions favouring pathogen growth. Storage and distribution of perishable foods may create hazards; the growth of pathogens increases significantly at temperatures above 5-10°C. Foodborne illness sometimes results from improper preparation and use. Finally, the consumer’s susceptibility influences the severity and the probability of occurrence of a foodborne disease. When a food product is targeted at the very young, the very old or people with certain diseases, potential hazards often become significant hazards. For instance, a healthy person normally can consume low levels of Listeria monocytogenes without becoming ill; for immuno-suppressed persons, these doses may be dangerous.
5Veszélyelemzés Kockázatbecslés Választható kifejezéseklehetségesvalószínűfeltételezhetőnagy az előfordulás valószínségeelfogadható / elfogdhatatlanEvaluating the likelihood of occurrence of the hazard is the most difficult aspect of Hazard Analysis. For many raw materials it is possible that Salmonella is present, but is the presence probable or likely or reasonably expected to occur? The choice of the words is reflecting an assessment of the likelihood of occurrence which is one of the elements of the assessment of risks. Another part is the assessment of whether the reduction of a hazard is adequate, acceptable or unacceptable.
6Döntési faAlkalmazzák a döntési fát minden lépésre, melyhez megállapított veszély tartozikThis decision tree can be used to determine hazards during a HACCP study. If an agent is not present in a raw material or in the line or line environment, it is not a hazard. If it is in the environment but cannot contaminate the product, it is still not a hazard. If it can contaminate the product and survive, persist or increase, it may become a hazard. This depends on whether an adequate reduction will take place later in the process or during preparation of the food prior to consumption. These questions have to be asked at each step of the food chain, and for each agent or potential hazard. This hazard determination is very important because the results of this exercise will determine the safety of the final product. All possible hazards must be considered. Once we have established a list of hazards and the conditions leading to them, control measures are taken at "Critical Control Points," which are identified by using decision trees. In this course, we are using the decision tree proposed by the International Life Science Institute. Other trees can be found in other texts, such as the Codex document. The questions in such trees are helpful because they bring a systematic approach to the study. Additional questions may be necessary. The first question deals with raw materials. If the answer to question 1 is NO, then the raw material is not a Critical Control Point (no hazards have to be kept under control). If the answer is YES, the next question must be answered. If the hazard is eliminated or reduced by a later process step, the raw material is not a CCP; for instance, if milk is pasteurized or boiled, the raw material (milk) is not a critical control point. If it is not heated before consumption, it must be considered to be a CCP. This means that measures to prevent it from becoming contaminated are necessary before using it as a raw material. This question deals with the formulation or composition of the product. It is clear that in certain products, pathogen multiplication is prevented by the pH, in others by the aw and in others by the "sterility". Fermentation of foods to make and keep them safe becomes a Critical Control Point if the fermented food is not heated before consumption.
7Döntési faAlkalmazzák a döntési fát minden lépésre, melyhez megállapított veszély tartozikThe composition can be an important aspect of a product's safety, for instance if a raw ingredient is added to a heat treated product. Contamination or recontamination may occur at several points; control measures are needed to prevent this. If pathogen levels can increase at a certain step in the food chain, this has to be controlled at that step. However, if the hazard is reduced during further processing or preparation, (re)contamination or increase is of lower concern, i.e. the step is not a CCP for these hazards. If the answer to question 4 is NO, then question 6 has to be answered. If the answer to question 4 is YES, question 5 asks whether a later step of the process will render the product safe. If it will, then this step is not a Critical Control Point. But if the answer is NO (the hazard will not be removed), then recontamination and growth have to be prevented at this step. Measures to limit recontamination and pathogen growth are needed at each process stage, but they are often not critical for product safety. If an agent is likely to be present, and a treatment is meant to reduce it to acceptable levels, it is important that the reduction actually occurs. If the reduction is insufficient, the product can still be hazardous. Clearly, a point where such a treatment is applied is a Critical Control Point. Question 6 refers to a process step which is designed to keep hazards under control; for example, pasteurization and sterilization, or any other treatment such as irradiation meant to kill pathogens. The time and temperature or the radiation dose, needed to kill the bacteria should be clearly specified and applied. If the temperature is not reached or the time is too short, or the absorbed radiation dose is too low, i.e. the critical limits are not met, then the safety of the product is not ensured.
8Általában a GMP alkalmazása mellett előállított termékek biztonságosak Ha élelmiszer eredetű megbetegedés fordul elő, annak oka a GMP-től való eltérés, vagy olyan véletlen események, melyeket nem azonosítottak időbenOne of the problems in a HACCP study is to distinguish between a Critical Control Point and a "Normal" Control Point. Normally, foods produced according to what is called "Good Manufacturing Practices" (GMP) are safe. If this were not the case, we would simply not call those manufacturing practices "good”; furthermore, we would be ill most of the time. In most cases where foods have been incriminated in foodborne diseases, deviations from GMP occurred, or incidents happened, that where not detected in time. This means that many aspects of food production are covered by measures and controls which form part of GMP. HACCP underscores those practices, which are critical in ensuring a product's safety. It may also play a complementary role to GMP as during the HACCP study, some control measures specific to the food and line of production may additionally be identified. The documentation and record keeping concerning a CCP are more demanding than for a normal control point. Personnel should be better trained in how to detect deviations from normality and how to correct the situation promptly.
9Kérdések, melyeket minden veszély és CCP esetén fel kel tennünk (1) Mikor beszélünk a normális értéktől valóeltérés esetén elfogadhatatlanságról?(pl. kritikus határérték meghatározása)Once we have identified the CCPs, we have to establish the parameters and the critical limits attached to them. Assuming that under normal conditions, a safe product is manufactured, the next question is to determine the extent to which deviations from normality can be allowed before the product is considered unsafe. We do this by asking for each CCP and hazard: "At what point does a deviation become unacceptable?"We first have to define the normal procedure and identify the consequences of deviations from it. If a hazard could emerge, then we have to define when the deviation becomes unacceptable.If a chicken is thoroughly heated, Salmonella and Campylobacter are killed. This means that the temperature inside a chicken must reach 70°C. Thus, this is the critical limit. This aspect of the HACCP study will be discussed further in the following lecture.
10Kérdések, melyeket minden veszély és CCP esetén fel kel tennünk (2) Hogyan azonosíthatók az eltérések? Milyen gyakran kell az ellenőrzéseket végezni? Hogyan kell az eredményeket nyilvántartani?(pl. a felügyelő eljárás meghatározása)The next question is: How can a deviation be identified?The internal temperature of chicken can be measured with a thermometer, or the colour of the meat can be observed. This is monitoring.We also must determine the monitoring frequency. For chicken, monitoring starts only after it has been cooking for a while. However, in a continuous process such as milk pasteurization, monitoring is needed from beginning to end. It can be continuous; if the equipment does not allow this, the frequency must be sufficient to ensure that everything is under control.We have to record the results in a simple and understandable form. Recording is necessary for inspection purposes and, if there are complaints, to demonstrate that everything was under control.If no monitoring procedure exists to check control over the hazard at a CCP, such a point should not be called a CCP.
11Kérdések, melyeket minden veszély és CCP esetén fel kel tennünk (3) Mi a megfelelő eljárás eltérés esetén?(pl. helyesbítő tevékenységek meghatározása)If an unacceptable deviation occurs, or if the monitoring procedures indicate that the situation is getting out of control, we need to know how to react. If the chicken meat is pink, reheating or continued heating is the corrective action. If temperature recorders indicate that the temperature in a pasteurizer is too low, the heating system should be adjusted. Any product produced while the system was out of control should be reprocessed or disposed of in another way.Corrective actions should be described in the HACCP plan so that quick and effective action can be taken if necessary. These actions should deal not only with bringing the situation under control, but also with preventing a product produced under abnormal conditions from reaching the consumer.
12ÖsszefoglalásA veszélyelemzést szisztematikusan kell elvégezni, hogy elkerüljük a veszélyek figyelmen kívül hagyásátA kritikus szabályozási pontokat a döntési fa (mátrix) segítségével határozhatjuk megA GMP alkalmazásával előállított termék biztonságos, a normálistól való eltérést meg kell előzniA változásokkal kapcsolatba hozható veszélyeket előre kell látni és kontrollálni